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Islamic Arts and Architecture Organization
   
From the Caliphs in Medina to the Ummayads Dynasty in Damascus
632 - 634 The Caliph named Abu Bakr succeeded the Prophet Muhammad ( Peace Be Upon Him).
634 - 644 The Caliph Omar Ibn El-Khattab succeeded Abu Bakr in Medina.
634 The beginning of Arab Expansion:
conquest of Palestine and Syria.
635 The Arabs cross the Euphrates.
640 Capture of Egypt.
641 Capture of Nineveh and Armenia.
642 The Arab expansion reached Persia.
644 - 656 The Caliph Othman Ibn Affan succeeded Omar Ibn Al-Khattab.
644 Capture of Persia.
647 Capture of Tripolitania.
656 The Caliph Othman Ibn Affan was assassinated; Ali Ibn Abi Talib named Caliph.
660 Muawieyah Ibn Abi Sufyan (the founder of the the Umayyads dynasty) was Caliph in Damascus.
661 Ali Ibn Abi Talib was assassinated.
670 Annexation of Tunisia.
671 The Oxus is crossed.
673 - 678 First attempt to capture Constantinople.
680 - 683 Caliphate of Yazid Ibn Muawieyah.
680 Al-Husayn Ibn Ali Ibn Abi Talib was assassinated in Kerbela, Iraq.
683 - 693 The uprise of anti-caliphate in Mekka.
685 - 705 The Caliph Abd-Al-Malik Ibn Marwan came to power in Damascus.
683 - 693 Ka'ba at Mekka (al-Haaram el-Makki al-Sharif) was burned.
The anti-caliph uprise was brought to an end.
705 - 715 El-Waleed Ibn Abd-Al-Malik named Caliph in Damascus.
714 The submission of Al-Andalus (Spain).
742 - 743 Hisham Ibn Al-Hakam succeeded El-Waleed Ibn Abd-Al-Malik in Damascus.
744 Yazid III named Caliph in Damascus.
750 - 750 Marwan II named Caliph.
Alid insurrections in Khurasan.
750 The defeat of Marwan II; the end of the Ummayyad Caliphate in Damascus.
  Introduction
  Prophet and Caliphs
  Mikka and Medina
  Medina
  The Ummayads
  First Dynasty: Damascus
  Last Dynsaty: Al-Andalus
  The Abbasids
  First Dynasty: Baghdad
  Last Dynasty: Baghdad
  Tulunid and Fatimid
  Egypt
  Seljuks and Ayyubids
  Syria
  Ifriqiya and Sicily
  Ifriqiya and Sicily
  Almoravid and Almohad
  Morocco
  Al-Andalus (Spain)
  The Mughals
  India
  The Safavids
  The Ottomans